Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities


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Inclusion of students with disabilities

Question:What percentage of students with disabilities are educated in general classrooms?


Enacted in 1975, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, mandates the provision of a free and appropriate public school education for eligible students ages 321.

Ninety-five percent of school-age students served under IDEA in fall 2020 were enrolled in regular schools. Three percent of students served under IDEA were enrolled in separate schools for students with disabilities 2 percent were placed in regular private schools 1 and less than 1 percent each were homebound or in hospitals, in separate residential facilities , or in correctional facilities. Among all school-age students served under IDEA, the percentage who spent 80 percent or more of their time in general classes in regular schools increased from 59 percent in fall 2009 to 66 percent in fall 2020.2 In contrast, during the same period, the percentage of students who spent 40 to 79 percent of the school day in general classes decreased from 21 to 17 percent, and the percentage of students who spent less than 40 percent of their time in general classes decreased from 15 to 13 percent. From 2019 to 2020, changes in the percentages of students who spent various amounts of time in general classes reflected the overall trends between 2009 and 2020.

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Is Inclusive Education Expensive

Making education inclusive is not a cost-cutting measure. Governments must be prepared to invest substantial resources at the outset on system reforms such as teacher and staff training improving infrastructure, learning materials, and equipment and revising curricula to implement inclusive education successfully. However, by eliminating redundancy and the high costs of running parallel systems, such investments are an efficient and effective use of funds, and hold the potential to improve education for all students.

Funding mechanisms must be reformed so that schools that enroll students with special needs receive the necessary additional financial resources. When students move from special schools to mainstream schools, the funding should also follow.

Teachers Perceptions About Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities

In a Rural High School research methodology

Purpose and Study Questions.. 52

Research Design. 52

Participants and Sampling Methods. 60

Data Collection Methods 61

Data Management and Analysis. 62

Study Reliability and Vitality.. 63

Limitations. 63

Chapter 3: Methodology

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers perceptions associated with inclusion of students with learning disabilities at the secondary level in a rural school district. According to the NCLB Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, inclusion is a means to meet the needs of special education students in the general education setting. Before planning and implementing inclusive classrooms, a few variables such as building relational capacity, shared planning time, and administrative support and training need to be put in place. Understanding these important components of inclusive classrooms can help teachers create, maintain, and sustain effective inclusive environments.

Research Design

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What Are The Basic Elements Of Inclusive Education

  • Use of teaching assistants or specialists: These staff have the potential to be inclusive or divisive. For instance, a specialist who helps teachers address the needs of all students is working inclusively. A specialist who pulls students out of class to work with them individually on a regular basis is not.
  • Inclusive curriculum: An inclusive curriculum includes locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized and minority groups. It avoids binary narratives of good and bad, and allows adapting the curriculum to the learning styles of children with special education needs.
  • Parental involvement: Most schools strive for some level of parental involvement, but it is often limited to emails home and occasional parentteacher conferences. In a diverse school system, inclusion means thinking about multiple ways to reach out to parents on their own terms.

Why Is Disability Education Important For Students

How children with disabilities came to be accepted in public schools ...

Inclusion is mandated by law, but meaningful education about disabilities goes much beyond legal compliance. Creating an environment where all children feel included and valued is a necessary part of ensuring that students receive a comprehensive education that they can apply to the real world.

An inclusive culture begins with understanding that children are able to identify differences instead of pretending those differences dont exist. That can start with teaching person-first language, which refers to the individual first instead of equating them to a disability or neuro-diverse identity. For example, instead of referring to a classmate as autistic, a child can learn to identify their peer as a person with autism.

When done correctly, it adds to the trajectory of a child developing their empathy.

Kids have implicit bias just like adults do, said Becky Bell Scott, faculty member at Baylor Universitys Master of Social Work program online. When theyre not left to sort that out on their own, the differences become less pronounced through their lifetime.

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Toward A Mainstream School Environment

Inclusive education means including students with disabilities in a mainstream school environment. In many countries today, children with disabilities attend ordinary schools but follow a specific curriculum. Moving toward a more inclusive model is a long-term process.

As countries move toward more inclusive education, special schools and their staff can play a key role by acting as specialized experts and helping mainstream schools achieve greater inclusion . The Global Partnership for Education studied the inclusion of students with disabilities in education sector plans in 51 countries. Seventeen of them are considering a two-pronged approach: to integrate disability in education and to invest in actions and services aimed specifically at meeting the needs of children with disabilities .

The General Ed Teachers Guide To The Inclusive Classroom

The complexity involved in integrating students with disabilities into general education classrooms can make this process seem intimidating or overwhelming to a general education teacher. If you feel this way, take comfort in the realization that you are not alone. Actually the fact you find yourself currently exploring this website indicates you are journeying down the right path. As already noted, a knowledgeable approach proves vital to a thriving inclusive environment. So, be sure to consider the strategies shared within The General Ed Teachers Guide to the Inclusive Classroom.

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Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities And English Learners

It is important for NAEP to assess as many students selected to participate as possible. Assessing representative samples of students, including students with disabilities and English learners , helps to ensure that NAEP results accurately reflect the educational performance of all students in the target population, and can continue to serve as a meaningful measure of U.S. studentsâ academic achievement over time.

In March 2010, the National Center for Education Statistics , working with the National Assessment Governing Board , adopted a new policy to maximize the participation of students with disabilities and English learners .

Today, NAEP continues to explore ways to ensure consistent, inclusive assessment and reporting across all jurisdictions and student populations.

In 2019, about 90% of students with disabilities and English learners in fourth and eighth grades were assessed in the NAEP mathematics and reading assessments.

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress , 2019 Mathematics and Reading Assessments

Inclusive Learning: Everyone’s In

Meaningful Inclusion in Early Childhood

This video overview is part of the Edmonton Public Schools’ “Inclusive Learning: Everyones In” initiative. The District was selected as a change agent for Alberta’s “Action on Inclusion” initiative to share information about best practices to welcome, include and support students’ needs in the classroom and community. View all of the Inclusive Learning: Everyones In video. You can also access the accompanying Learning Guide.

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Understanding Inclusive Education Policies

Inclusive education can only exist with strong support from the government and specific legislation . Fortunately, the general understanding that children with disabilities have the right to education is growing. Indeed, most countries currently have laws or regulations specifically designed to ensure that children with disabilities have equal opportunities to receive an education . The quality and details of these laws, however, vary significantly. Also, even where there are laws or provisions promoting inclusive education, these commitments have not yet necessarily been harmonized with general education planning . In some countries, such as Egypt, laws simply state that children with disabilities have the right to education. Other countries, such as Ethiopia, are more prescriptive. In the case of Ethiopia, the National Plan of Action of Persons with Disabilities not only describes the rights of individuals with disabilities but also addresses outputs, activities, and indicators associated with those rights .

Education in Schools for Children Who Are Deaf.

This section of the guide provides an overview of relevant international policies related to inclusive education, describes components that should be included in national policies, and introduces the importance of national inclusive education strategies or plans.

Tips For Promoting Inclusion In Special Education

Inclusion is a very important word in both special education and general education in the school setting. What exactly does inclusion mean anyways? According to the website, Special Education Guide, Regarding individuals with disabilities and special education, inclusion secures opportunities for students with disabilities to learn alongside their non-disabled peers in general education classrooms.

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Strategies For Fostering Empathy And Understanding


Incorporate storybooks or narratives that include representations of children with various physical and intellectual abilities.


Ask students deliberate questions that encourage them to share and consider their own thoughts when encountering people who are different from themselves. Examples include:

  • What did you notice?
  • How did you feel?


Empower students with disabilities to tell stories about their own experiences. This helps students be in charge of their own narratives, as long as they willfully opt in to sharing.


If students with disabilities dont feel comfortable sharing, facilitators can use online videos to share stories from similarly aged peers, followed by a classroom discussion.


These games foster cooperation, as opposed to focusing on competition. This use of meta cognition encourages participants to consider the social dynamics of the whole group, not just with themselves.

Listening to students and young people in any community can help school personnel shape a meaningful curriculum of diversity and inclusion.

Our goal is not to save the world, McClung said. Our goal is to try to impact the lives of one youth at a time.

The Benefits Of An Inclusive Classroom

Inclusion Series: 8 Awesome Tips for Making Inclusion Meaningful (and ...

A paper published by the National Center of Educational Outcomes shows that 80-85% of special education students can meet the same achievement standards as their nondisabled peers if given the individualized instruction, appropriate access, supports, and accommodations required by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act . Students with disabilities are affected to varying degrees by a variety of conditions, and only a small group of students, including students with intellectual impairments, autism, and multiple disabilities, require different achievement standards. Even then, these students benefit from grade-level curriculum.

In a paper summarizing the evidence on inclusive education, researchers looked at more than 280 research studies in 25 countries and found consistent evidence that when students with disabilities are taught alongside their nondisabled peers, their cognitive and social development benefited. Although results vary from student to student, students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms tended to outperform their peers in segregated settings.

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From Exclusion To Inclusion: Challenging The Disability Narrative

Joshua St. Pierre named Canada Research Chair in Critical Disability Studies

Donna McKinnon – 17 December 2020

As a child with a pronounced stutter, Joshua St. Pierre did not identify as disabled while growing up in the small and conservative Alberta community of Rocky Mountain House. A summer internship prior to entering grad school with the UAlberta-based Living Archives on Eugenics in Western Canada introduced St. Pierre to the field of disability studies and everything changed.

As St. Pierre delved further into the subject, he began to locate his own experience within the much larger story of eugenics the practice of surgical sterilization for those deemed mental defectives, in effect in Alberta from 1928 until 1972.

Before finding this community of scholars and activists, I didnt know there were alternatives to the dominant narrative of pathologization that justifies our exclusion from social and political life, says St. Pierre.

Graduating with a PhD in Philosophy in 2019, St. Pierre has since produced a research program of such theoretical originality and relevance, its potential impact has been recognized nationally with a 2020 Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Critical Disability Studies.

An important person in this journey has been Danielle Peers, a fellow Canada Research Chair in Disability and Movement Cultures and an Assistant Professor, Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation.

Read the Folio announcement here.

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Higher Educations Challenge: Disability Inclusion On Campus

By Dahlia Shaewitz and Jennifer R. Crandall

This post is part of the series Beyond the Margins: Meeting the Needs of Underserved Students.

Disability is inherently diverseit is a category that includes people from every gender, race, culture, sexual orientation, geographic region, age group, and socioeconomic level. Its also a group to which all of us can belong at any time. In 2016, one in four adults in the United States reported having a disability. This number increases to 40 percent for people age 65 and older.

Disability is part of the human condition. To ensure inclusion in higher education, campus leaders must consider how to fully embrace all students, faculty, and staff with and without disabilities. When developing a culture of inclusion, colleges and universities have specific responsibilities to students with disabilities to ensure they can learn and achieve their goals.

Creating a culture of inclusion

Strategies for full inclusion on campus

Although no higher education institution has achieved full inclusion, many are striving to reach that goal. Drawing from a recent higher education inclusion guide on how to accommodate students while building a comprehensive culture of inclusion, we highlight specific action steps campus leaders can take and examples of institutions with supports in place for students with disabilities to achieve their highest potential.

How will your campus or institution build a comprehensive culture of inclusion?

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Rti Press Associate Editor

  • Inclusive education for students with sensory disabilities in Ghana: views of students with disabilities about availability of resources in regular schools.Opoku MP, Nketsia W, Fianyi I, Laryea P. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2022 Aug 17:687-694. Epub 2020 Aug 20.
  • Review Review: typically-developing students’ views and experiences of inclusive education.Bates H, McCafferty A, Quayle E, McKenzie K. Disabil Rehabil. 2015 37:1929-39. Epub 2015 Jul 25.
  • An exploratory study on attitudes toward inclusive education in Russia.Int J Rehabil Res. 2005 Jun 28:141-7.
  • Determining the competences of community based workers for disability-inclusive development in rural areas of South Africa, Botswana and Malawi.Lorenzo T, van Pletzen E, Booyens M. Rural Remote Health. 2015 Apr-Jun 15:2919. Epub 2015 Jun 5.
  • Review Learning Disabilities Screening and Evaluation Guide for Low- and Middle-Income CountriesHayes AM, Dombrowski E, Shefcyk A, Bulat J. 2018 Apr

Inclusive Teaching And Learning Materials

Inclusive Education and Children with Disabilities | UNICEF

Use language that stresses the person first and the disability second .

Promote empathy and an overall feeling of understanding for people with disabilities, as well as provide accurate information about a specific disability.

Demonstrate respect for and acceptance of people with disabilities, and depict them as more similar than different from other people .

Emphasize the successes of people with disabilities and show their strengths and abilities along with their disabilities.

Promote positive images of persons with disabilities and represent them as strong, independent people, who others can look up to or admire.

Represent people with disabilities from different racial and cultural backgrounds, religions, and age groups, as well as rural versus urban representations.

Illustrate characters and adaptive equipment accurately.

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Defining ‘students With Disabilities And Additional Needs’

The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 defines the term disability as referring to physical, intellectual, mental and medical impairments, including disorders that result in a person learning differently.

This means that the policy applies to all students with a disability, not just those who are eligible for support under targeted programs such as the Program for Students with Disabilities.

How Can We Advance Inclusive Education

To make inclusive education a reality we need to do the following:

  • ensure that educators have the training, flexibility, and resources to teach students with diverse needs and learning styles
  • ensure that kindergartens and schools receive adequate and sustainable financial support so that all activities and services are fully inclusive
  • empower parents to assert their childrens right to education in inclusive settings
  • enable the entire communityincluding mainstream and special educators, social workers, parents, and studentsto work together and participate in the design, delivery, and monitoring of education, thereby reframing inclusive education as a shared responsibility
  • hold governments accountable for implementing antidiscrimination legislation, legal mandates for inclusion, and policies to remove barriers

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Provides Support To All Students

In more traditional special education settings, many kids are pulled out for related services like speech therapy or for other specialized instruction. An inclusive class often brings speech therapists, reading specialists, and other service providers into the classroom.

These professionals can provide information and suggestions to help all students. If kids arent eligible for special education but still need some extra support, they can get it informally.

Creates High Expectations For All

What Does Inclusion Look Like?

In an Individualized Education Program , a students goals should be based on the academic standards for their state. Those standards lay out what all students are expected to learn in math, reading, science, and other subjects by the end of the school year.

Differentiated instruction and co-teaching in a general education classroom make it easier for students with standards-based IEPs to be taught the same material as their classmates.

In some schools, only certain classrooms are designated as inclusive. In that case, schools may assign general education students randomly to inclusive or noninclusive classes. Other schools may choose students who benefit from the emphasis on meeting the needs of all learners at all ability levels.

Investigate the supports and services that might be available in an inclusive classroom. Explore the various models of collaborative team teaching. And read an interview with an inclusion specialist about what inclusion looks like in action.

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